Transparent semiconducting oxides (TSOs) combine semiconducting behaviour and high transparency in the visible spectrum, in some TSOs even down to the deep ultraviolet. They define a fast-growing area in solid-state physics that is relevant for both science and technology. Some of the physical properties of this class of materials, in particular transport properties thereof, are not fully understood so far, therefore, it opens an opportunity for fundamental studies of the physical properties. On the other hand, materials for study need to be obtained and this poses technological challenges, in particular when industrial applications are in quest. The TSO materials may have different forms, like nanocrystals, thin films, whether amorphous, polycrystalline, or crystalline, ceramics, and bulk single crystals. Although important properties can be gathered from ceramics and thin films they are usually affected by the composition, possible other phases, point defects, and structural defects. Due to their high structural quality and homogeneity, bulk single crystals show physical properties that are closer to intrinsic material properties than ceramics, nanocrystals, and most thin films. Additionally, bulk single crystals serve as substrates for epitaxial growth and device fabrication.
There is a wide spectrum of applications for the TSOs, including electronics, opto-electronics, piezoelectrics, photovoltaics, radiation detection, gas sensing, catalysis, and the like, which may arise not necessarily from fundamental features of the TSOs, but also from the crystal structure and/or surface properties. More details on the applications of the TSOs can be found e.g. in numerous review articles [1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10] and text books [11,12,13,14,15,16]. For some of these applications, especially for electronics, electrical properties of the materials are crucial for device operation. In particular, ultra-wide bandgaps of some of the TSOs make them suitable for high power switching devices, while materials with a very high electrical conductivity are well suited for transparent electrodes in photovoltaics and flat panel displays. Bulk crystals may function directly as active components in some of the devices (e.g. FET transistors and Schottky barrier diodes in vertical configurations) or as passive components acting as substrates for devices fabricated thereon. In the latter case, the substrates can be used for both homoepitaxy or heteroepitaxy.
The nation's network of more than 130 Next Generation Radars (NEXRADs) is used to detect wind and precipitation to help National Weather Service forecasters monitor and predict flash floods and other storms. This book assesses the performance of the Sulphur Mountain NEXRAD in Southern California, which has been scrutinized for its ability to detect precipitation in the atmosphere below 6000 feet. The book finds that the Sulphur Mountain NEXRAD provides crucial coverage of the lower atmosphere and is appropriately situated to assist the Los Angeles-Oxnard National Weather Service Forecast Office in successfully forecasting and warning of flash floods. The book concludes that, in general, NEXRAD technology is effective in mountainous terrain but can be improved.
The ICHEP is the vital platform for exchanging recent achievements and discussing future facilities in particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology. The first conference was held at Rochester in 1950. Since then, the ICHEP has served as the core arena for leading experimentalists and theorists of the world to share exciting results and new ideas.A wide-ranging scientific program consisting of plenary lectures, parallel sessions, and satellite meetings as well as poster sessions for young scientists covering all topics in high energy physics will be scheduled. At ICHEP2018 in Seoul, many important results came from the LHC Run II experiments, neutrino physics, dark matter, gravitational wave, and cosmology.
Hendrix DK, Brenner SE, Holbrook SR. 2005. RNA structural motifs: building blocks of a modular biomolecule. Quarterly Reviews of Biophysics 38:221-243. PMID:16817983. doi:10.1017/S0033583506004215[PDF .56M]
Chothia C, Hubbard TJP, Brenner SE, Barns H, Murzin A. 1997. Protein folds in the all-α and all-β classes. Annual Reviews of Biophysics and Biomolecular Structure 26:597-627. PMID:9241431. [PDF 1.3M]
NCERT Solutions Class 10 Social Science increases the base for conceptual knowledge. It provides a complete view of the prescribed syllabus, as the textbook doesn't have a detailed description of the syllabus nor solutions. All the important theorems and formulas of Class 10 are completely solved, which works to make the concepts and find new links to them. Importantly, the Class 10 NCERT Solution Social Science is the point of reference for those students planning for competitive examinations such as NRRT, JEE Main/Advanced, BITSAT & VITEEE etc. When the NCERT book is accompanied by the solutions, the knowledge of concepts becomes simple and in-depth. Moreover, students can trail into the solutions without break in topics, as it is designed to give a step-by-step explanation. Try out the Class 10 Solutions and learn from the resources.
The six issues of IUCrJ published in 2021 have featured papers from a wide variety of areas including biology, chemistry, crystal engineering, cryo-EM, materials, physics and FELs. The number of articles submitted to the journal was 117; a total of 108 papers were published with an average turnaround time of 16 weeks. Articles have been publicized in IUCrJ's social media feeds and by other methods, with 11 articles highlighted via in-depth commentaries.
International Tables for Crystallography is a book series published by the IUCr in conjunction with Wiley. Nine volumes designated A (and A1) through H are currently in print. A substantial part of a tenth (I, on X-ray absorption spectroscopy and related techniques) is now available online. The Brief Teaching Edition has also been a part of the series; in 2021 it was replaced by a revision so extensive that it has a new name (Teaching Edition: Crystallographic Symmetry). The Symmetry Database is a related online resource.
While International Tables has long been a collection of printed books it is being transformed into an electronic resource. Parts of it became available online starting in 2006. The transition is expected to continue because it allows more material to be included, makes it easier to correct or add material, and is advantageous financially. Printed copies of some volumes (e.g., Vols. A and E) are, however, expected to remain available because so many users prefer a version that they can page through and annotate. So far there has been no online version of the Teaching Edition but that possibility is being considered.
Twenty-eight sample pages of the TE have been made freely available via the International Tables website ( ). An online version of the whole book will soon be available for a token subscription fee.
Symmetry Database server of the Online Edition of International Tables (updated continuously; Editor Mois Aroyo). The Teaching Edition of the Symmetry Database (TESD) was created following the concepts and ideas developed and agreed upon during 2020. The TESD will provide free access to subscribers to the online version of the Teaching Edition book to all current programs of the Symmetry Database while limiting the sets of space and point groups to which the programs can be applied to those featured in the book.
A kick-off meeting to launch the International Research Network (IRN) `Open space between aperiodic order and physics & chemistry of materials' took place in hybrid mode from 3 to 7 October 2021 at Carry le Rouet, France. The objective of this IRN is to foster collaborations between the aperiodic crystal community and those who work on chemical and physical properties of materials. The creation of this network is the logical consequence of the previous meetings held in Nagoya (2015), Annecy (2017) and Sendai (2019), bringing together aperiodic and correlated electron communities.
Active crystallographers should be involved in the organization of the conference and one or more sessions should deal with specific crystallographic topics. This does not automatically include any session on condensed matter physics, materials science or symmetry not related to crystallography. According to these criteria all meetings organized by IUCr Commissions automatically qualify.
The Book Series Committee members provided assessments of two new book proposals, one a monograph and one a teaching text, which were then brought together as Chair's reports. These two reports were first provided to the IUCr Executive Committee, which endorsed them, and then they were submitted to OUP. Details are below.
An evaluation was made of a proposal for a second edition of the book by Professor Dr Ulrich Müller, entitled Symmetry Relationships between Crystal Structures, published in 2013 (in paperback 2017). It is in our IUCr OUP Book Series Crystallography Texts. The OUP website for the book is -relationships-between-crystal-structures-9780199669950. 2b1af7f3a8