I januari 1998 släpptes boken Form i fokus B facit skriven av Cecilia Fasth, Anita Kannermark. Det är den 1a upplagan av kursboken. Den är skriven på svenska och består av 34 sidor djupgående information om språk. Förlaget bakom boken är Folkuniversitetets förlag.
Vi använder kakor för personligt innehåll och annonser samt för analys av vår trafik. Vi delar information om din användning av tjänsten med våra partners inom sociala medier, annonsering och trafikanalys. Våra partners kan kombinera denna data med information som du delat med dem.
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In the present study, the aim was to gather background information on the development of the FACIT-Sp, as well as subsequent empirical data from studies that have employed the measure as primary or secondary predictors or as outcome variables. The scope was not intended to be an exhaustive review of every study that uses the FACIT-Sp in any capacity. Rather, the inclusion criteria were studies that employed the FACIT-Sp as an integral component where results enhanced our understanding of the FACIT-Sp, of spiritual well-being within chronic illness populations, or both. To this end, studies with relatively small samples that significantly lacked generalizability were excluded, as were studies that included the FACIT-Sp in a supplementary fashion. Also, reporting of statistical significance has been limited to data that has directly impacted implications for the FACIT-Sp. Finally, while several measures of spiritual well-being exist, the focus of this review is on spiritual well-being as assessed by the FACIT-Sp.
All of the FACIT-Sp questionnaires were designed for self-administration and use a 5-point Likert-type scale to measure patient-reported HRQOL (0 = Not at all; 1 = A little bit; 2 = Somewhat; 3 = Quite a bit; and 4 = Very much). The recall period for each question is seven days. Questions were written at the fourth grade-reading level as measured by the Lexile Framework . Formatting was done to enable self-administration with minimal burden. The option to complete the questionnaire by interview decreases burden for patients whose condition or mood preclude them from completing the questionnaire on their own (e.g. due to fatigue, depression, or poor eyesight), although this may increase completion time. Supervision (review of the items) is recommended when the patient has completed the questionnaire to ensure that all questions have been answered to the best of the respondent's capability. The questionnaire is easy to score using the scoring template (Table 2), and scoring algorithms are also available for use with commonly used data analysis programs. To date, the English version of the FACIT-Sp has also been translated and linguistically validated in Arabic, Chinese (Simplified and Traditional), Danish, Dutch, Farsi, French, German, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Norwegian, Portuguese, Spanish, and Swedish. Please see www.facit.org for an up to date list on language availability for all FACIT scales and scoring protocols.
Another study geared towards the HIV/AIDS population looked at the direct and indirect effects of spiritual well-being/religion by looking at patient perceptions of living with HIV/AIDS . Four hundred and fifty patients at various stages of HIV/AIDS illness were recruited, and spiritual well-being was measured using the FACIT-SP-Ex, as well as other survey instruments. Information related to health status, lifestyle, social support, self-esteem and healthy beliefs (optimism) was collected, and clinical data was considered. Patients who had attended college, were currently employed and identified themselves as having a religion were significantly more likely to say their lives had improved and these patients reported fewer distressing and depressive symptoms, and higher levels of optimism, self-esteem, social support and spiritual well-being.
Folate functions as a coenzyme or cosubstrate in single-carbon transfers in the synthesis of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and metabolism of amino acids [1-3]. One of the most important folate-dependent reactions is the conversion of homocysteine to methionine in the synthesis of S-adenosyl-methionine, an important methyl donor. Another folate-dependent reaction, the methylation of deoxyuridylate to thymidylate in the formation of DNA, is required for proper cell division. An impairment of this reaction initiates a process that can lead to megaloblastic anemia, one of the hallmarks of folate deficiency .
When consumed, food folates are hydrolyzed to the monoglutamate form in the gut prior to absorption by active transport across the intestinal mucosa . Passive diffusion also occurs when pharmacological doses of folic acid are consumed. Before entering the bloodstream, the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase reduces the monoglutamate form to THF and converts it to either methyl or formyl forms . The main form of folate in plasma is 5-MTHF.
Dietary supplements containing 5-MTHF are also available. For some people, supplementation with 5-MTHF might be more beneficial than with folic acid (see "People with an MTHFR polymorphism" below) [20,21]. The bioavailability of 5-MTHF in supplements is the same as or greater than that of folic acid [22-27]. However, conversion factors between mcg and mcg DFE for 5-MTHF have not been formally established. The FDA allows manufacturers to use either a conversion factor of 1.7 to be comparable to folic acid, or their own established conversion factors not to exceed 1.7 .
A 2015 expert panel convened by the National Toxicology Program and the National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements concluded that folic acid supplements do not reduce cancer risk in people with adequate baseline folate status. The panel also determined that the consistent findings from human studies that supplemental folic acid has an adverse effect on cancer growth justify additional research on the effects of folic acid supplementation on cancer risk . Several important questions about these effects remain, including the dose and timing of folic acid supplementation that might exert tumor-promoting effects and whether this effect is specific to synthetic folic acid or other forms of folate .
Overall, the evidence to date indicates that adequate dietary folate intake might reduce the risk of some forms of cancer. However, the effects of supplemental folic acid on cancer risk are unclear, especially among individuals with a history of colorectal adenomas or other forms of cancer. More research is needed to fully understand how dietary folate and supplemental folic acid affect cancer risk and whether their effects differ by timing of exposure.
Additional research is needed to fully understand the association between folate status and depression. Although limited evidence suggests that supplementation with certain forms and doses of folate might be a helpful adjuvant treatment for depressive disorders, more research is needed to confirm these findings. In addition, many of the doses of folate used in studies of depression exceed the UL and should be taken only under medical supervision.
Based on the metabolic interactions between folate and vitamin B12, the FNB established a UL for the synthetic forms of folate available in dietary supplements and fortified foods (Table 3) . The FNB did not establish a UL for folate from food because high intakes of folate from food sources have not been reported to cause adverse effects . Thus, unlike the RDAs, the ULs are in mcg, not mcg DFE. For folic acid, 1,000 mcg is equivalent to 1,667 mcg DFE because 0.6 mcg folic acid = 1 mcg DFE [11,164]. The ULs do not apply to individuals taking high doses of supplemental folate under medical supervision .
This fact sheet by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) provides information that should not take the place of medical advice. We encourage you to talk to your health care providers (doctor, registered dietitian, pharmacist, etc.) about your interest in, questions about, or use of dietary supplements and what may be best for your overall health. Any mention in this publication of a specific product or service, or recommendation from an organization or professional society, does not represent an endorsement by ODS of that product, service, or expert advice.
Information from the National Library of Medicine Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. Layout table for eligibility information Ages Eligible for Study: 18 Years and older (Adult, Older Adult) Sexes Eligible for Study: All Accepts Healthy Volunteers: No Criteria Inclusion Criteria:
In the controlled portions of clinical trials of TNF blockers including the subcutaneous formulation of golimumab, more cases of lymphoma have been observed among patients receiving anti-TNF treatment compared with patients in the control groups. In clinical trials, the incidence of malignancies other than lymphoma and non-melanoma skin cancer per 100 patient-years of follow-up was 0.56 (95% CI: 0.01, 3.11) in the SIMPONI ARIA® group compared with an incidence of 0 (95% CI: 0.00, 3.79) in the placebo group. Cases of acute and chronic leukemia have been reported with TNF-blocker use, including SIMPONI ARIA®. The risks and benefits of TNF-blocker therapy should be considered prior to initiating therapy in patients with a known malignancy or who develop a malignancy. 2b1af7f3a8