The types of medications that can cause a phototoxic reaction treat all different diseases and health conditions. Did you have a recent infection? Do you suffer from seasonal allergies? Do you have high cholesterol, diabetes, or have issues with retaining water? What about over the counter pain killers? Many of these medications are common and can be found in several different forms (tablets, capsules, creams, ointments, etc), check out the list below and then check your medicine cabinet! Of note, this list is not all-inclusive. Those underlined have the most common occurrence.
In this issue, Darren Burton and Mark Uslan of AFB Tech evaluate the accessibility of insulin pens, devices that offer diabetics a delivery method that is easier, less painful, and more discreet than drawing doses from a vial using a needle and syringe. They are small, lightweight plastic handheld devices with prefilled insulin cartridges inside, and they use small microfine needles that have been shown to cause significantly less pain than conventional syringe needles. Find out how accessible these devices are for people who are blind or have low vision.
Understanding the confidence and willingness of training programme participants to intervene in the case of a medical emergency, as well as the knowledge retained from the training course, is beneficial to future delivery and development of AED programmes. Within the Australian community sports setting, this has not previously been determined. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe the knowledge, willingness to intervene and confidence in relation to medical emergencies and use of AEDs in community sports settings, 6 months after participation in the DSCF-Program and its associated training session. The focus on EAPs as part of the programmes was specifically considered and, given the influence in other settings, findings are also explored for people with and without a healthcare background.
All non-government and not-for-profit Victorian community organisations and venues that deliver sport or active recreation programmes in Victoria, Australia (population of approximately 6 million people) were eligible to apply for the State Government programme that led the delivery of AEDs and training.15 In applying, clubs/facilities agreed to register their AED with Ambulance Victoria and to update/develop an EAP. Full details on the programme and eligibility are available in the programme guidelines, a copy of which is available from the lead author on request. The clubs/facilities represent a mix of organisations: large and small; employed and volunteer led; highly competitive/organised and non-competitive/recreational-style sports; as well as regional and metropolitan areas. Multiple club members (including participants, board members, coaches and parents) at each club/facility could participate in a first aid training programme at their home facility to upskill them in the use of an AED and emergency medical care. The training programme is delivered similarly to a generic (eg, workplace) programme, so while some resources and information are standardised, other elements will differ according to the trainer who leads the course. Those who took part in the first aid training programme were asked to provide their email address with consent to be contacted for research purposes.
With the growing promotion of the role of AEDs in Australian community sport, there is a need to consider how best to implement and integrate them into daily practices. The DSCF-Program provided a unique opportunity to undertake research across a broad range of sports in the Victorian community sports setting. The overarching aims of the DSCF-Program were to enhance access to an AED at sports facilities and to expand the number of community members with training in use of an AED. These aims were achieved by the programme in that half of the respondents had no prior training with an AED and the delivery provided access to AEDs at multiple sites across the state. More in-depth investigation is required to ensure that knowledge from the training programme is retained and that devices are indeed accessible and integrated into the club/facility EAPs.
One of the key findings from this study is that one-third of the respondents did not know whether their sports club/facility had an EAP, despite the review of this documentation being a requirement of club participation in the DSCF-Program. Some respondents knew their club/facility had a plan but had no knowledge on how to access it. Such limitations to access could be critical in a life-saving situation. The DSCF-Program stipulated the review and revision of club safety procedures as a requirement, but it appears this was difficult for clubs to enact. The proportion of clubs with written EAPs is in line with research from the early 2000s into first aid safety policies and practices,17 indicating there is still a need to improve this element of risk management in community sports settings. Further, 10% of respondents answered that the location of AEDs should be known only to people who had been training and 29% responded that training was required before someone could use the AED. Both assumptions are inconsistent with preferred practice and suggest that additional information or new methods for its delivery need to be considered in the first aid training.
An AED is an important tool in responding to a medical emergency in sport. However, the AED can only be effective when people are confident with the broader emergency response process (including calling for an ambulance), when people know where to locate the AED and the AED has been properly maintained. For this reason, training and an update of the club/facility EAP was a requirement of the DSCF-Program. Results from this evaluation were positive in that half of the respondents were newly trained in use of an AED and for the most part, indicated they were willing to intervene in an emergency situation, if required. However, there is substantial room for improvement with the development, dissemination and updating of EAPs. Consideration of whether this latter process is a facility, club or individual responsibility will allow appropriate support to EAP development in future programme delivery. Ultimately, an emphasis on the education and emergency process for sports clubs/facilities is of equal, if not more, importance than reliance on any device (AED). 2b1af7f3a8